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英國教育專業termpaper:A Multi-Trait Multi-Method Validation of Thr

時間:2019-05-20 16:07來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
1.0 Introduction引言 1.1Background背景 對于現代企業來說,如何利用有效的管理工具,鼓勵員工將自己的技能和知識轉化為企業的競爭優勢,已成為企業人力資源管理的重要問題之一。一般來說,激
1.0 Introduction引言
1.1Background背景
對于現代企業來說,如何利用有效的管理工具,鼓勵員工將自己的技能和知識轉化為企業的競爭優勢,已成為企業人力資源管理的重要問題之一。一般來說,激勵員工的方法很多,其中員工晉升是最有效的手段之一(Araki、Kawaguchi和Onozuka,2016)。使用科學的評估方法和標準,確保能夠促進合適的員工充分調動所有員工的積極性和主動性,并在公司內創造公平、公正和開放的企業文化(Jaiswal和Dhar,2015年)。常用的方法有:自我報告(CV)、領導意見與面試(無領導小組面試)、多特征多方法等,所使用的特征包括專業知識、工作表現和生活意識等。For a modern enterprise, how to make use of effective management tools to encourage employees to change their skills and knowledge into a competitive advantage of the enterprise has become one of the most important issues of the enterprise’s human resource management. Generally speaking, there are many ways to motivate employees, among which employee promotion is one of the most effective means (Araki, Kawaguchi and Onozuka, 2016). The use of scientific assessment methods and standards ensures that the right staff can be promoted to fully mobilize the initiative and enthusiasm of all staff, and to create a fair, just and open corporate culture within a company (Jaiswal and Dhar, 2015). The commonly used methods include: self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview), multi-trait multi-method, and so on, the traits used include professional knowledge, work performance and living awareness and so on.
英國、美國等發達國家的人力資源管理研究與開發已有100多年的歷史。有比較成熟的員工晉升經驗和制度。他們也有一種比較成熟的員工特征評價方法,如多特征多方法。而我國的企業和學術界對人力資源管理的研究只有30年的歷史,在我國企業員工評價方法和標準的應用上存在著許多偏差,如性別偏差、工作經驗偏差等,導致合適的員工無法得到提升,錯誤的人也被提升。晉升,這對激發員工提高企業競爭力的積極性有很大的危害(陳、唐、萬、陳,2017)。對于中國企業來說,如何運用正確的評估方法和標準來確保員工的正確晉升是保持企業競爭力的關鍵因素之一。
The research and development of human resources management in developed countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States have a history of more than 100 years. There has been a relatively mature experience and system for employee promotion. They also have a more mature method for evaluation on traits of staff, such as multi-trait multi-method. And China's enterprises and academia has a history of only 30 years of research on human resources management, there are many bias in the application of staff evaluation methods and standards in Chinese enterprises, such as: gender bias, working experience bias, etc., leading to that appropriate employees fail to get promoted, and wrong people are promoted, which has great harm to stimulate the enthusiasm of employees to improve the competitiveness of enterprises (Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen, 2017). For Chinese enterprises, how to apply correct assessment methods and standards to ensure that right staff can be promoted is one of the key factors to maintain their competitiveness.
1.2 Research aim and objectives研究目標
The research aim of this study is to study on a multi-trait multi-method validation of three determinants of staff promotion in a Chinese company, based on this, it forms the following research objectives.
Research Objective 1: From the three aspects: self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview to analyze problems in the use of evaluation methods in the process of staff promotion in Chinese enterprises;
Research Objective 2: From three aspects: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness to study the problems of Chinese enterprises the use of evaluation standards in the process of employee promotion;
Research Objective 3: To explore the rationality of using multi-trait multi-method in staff promotion of Chinese enterprises;
Research Objective 4: To recommend on how Chinese enterprises apply evaluation method and evaluation criteria correctly in the process of employee promotion.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1Traits of promoted staff
In Chinese enterprises, the three traits: professional knowledge, work performance and cooperation awareness are usually taken as the evaluation criteria for staff promotion.
According to how much professional knowledge that employees have to determine whether they should be promoted is more common in the contemporary business management, professional knowledge usually refers to the professional and technical knowledge required for the work that staff are engaged in, and other professional knowledge related to the work, such as being familiar with environmental policies and regulations, understanding foreign advanced technology and basic financial knowledge, etc. (Jaiswal and Dhar, 2015). 
Taking staff's cooperation awareness as a standard to determine whether staff can be promoted, including whether staff can comply with the rules and regulations of an enterprise, whether they can coordinate with the superior to deal with work properly, and whether they can live with colleagues friendly, whether they are willing to cooperate with other colleagues to complete the work, whether they have a higher sense of responsibility, altruistic behavior, good communication, organizational loyalty and other characteristics of behavior of an organizational citizenship (Yuan et al., 2016).
According to work performance to determine whether staff can be promoted is based on an enterprise’s system to assess a staff’s ideological conduct; work ability; work attitude, performance, based on the assessment results to find whether the staff has reached the standard to determine whether the staff can be promoted (Araki, Kawaguchi and Onozuka, 2016).
In reality, the standards commonly used by Chinese companies to determine the promotion of employees also include working experience or development potential. Taking working experience as a promotion standard helps to improve employee loyalty, but it goes against motivating employees’ enthusiasm, because the long stayed staff may not be the core staff that the enterprise needs (Pema and Mehay, 2010). Taking development potential as a promotion standard helps to reserve personnel for the long-term development of an enterprise, but staff's potential is difficult to be quantified, in the assessment process, it is prone to bias, resulting in that inappropriate staff has been promoted (Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen, 2017).
2.2 Evaluation methods of staff promotion
In Chinese enterprises, self-report (CV), leader opinion and interview (leaderless group interview) are usually used as evaluation methods for staff promotion.
Self report evaluation method is based on the report of an employee’s for promotion to determine whether the staff can be promoted, the report should include the main achievements of the staff, what methods, measures have been adopted, what effect has been received, and with facts and data to support them (Chen, Tang, Wan and Chen, 2017).
Leader opinion evaluation method is based on the evaluation from leadership on a staff to determine whether the staff can be promoted (Pan, Zhou and Zhou, 2008).
Leaderless group interview refers to that examiners are through assessment on a staff’s dealing with crisis, dealing with emergencies and cooperation with others in a given situation to determine whether the staff meets the job needs (Barge, 1989).
In addition to the above three evaluation methods, there are other evaluation methods used in the promotion of employees, such as psychological testing and assessment center (AC) techniques (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011). Psychological testing helps to have a deep understanding of an employee's mental quality, work ability and personality characteristics in order to determine whether the employee meets the needs of senior positions, but the reliability and validity of psychological test itself is usually not high, leading to that results of psychological testing are not convincing. Assessment center techniques are considered to be the most effective method of evaluation for senior management, but its operation costs lots of time and money, and it has higher requirements for professional quality of the examiners (Knapp and Mujtaba, 2011), so it is less used in Chinese enterprises.
2.3 Bias
2.3.1 Bias due to gender
Chen, Ge, Lai and Wan’s (2013) studies have shown that women often face a lot of intangible, man-made barriers when women are promoted to the top of an organization. This phenomenon is vividly called the "glass ceiling effect". The results of Wright’s research revealed that compared with men, women have a significant disadvantage in obtaining an authoritative position with supervisory and decision-making power.
Chi, Li (2014) and other researchers have shown that there is a "sticky floor effect" that is different from the "glass ceiling effect" in the promotion of women, that is, women may not differ significantly from men in promotion, but after the promotion, there is only a small increase in wages for women.
Jakobsson, Kotsadam, Syse and Qien’s (2016) research proves that in financial industry, as well as high-tech industries, women in promotion process have encountered more difficulties and discrimination, they get less promotion opportunities, and in education, nurses and other industries, the difficulty of female promotion and discrimination is relatively small, they have relatively fair promotion opportunities.


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