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英國termpaper推薦:New method of construction

時間:2019-06-26 10:27來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
The world is constantly changing. Our energy demands experience dailyincreasingare increasing daily and global population is expected to increase by another 50% to 9 billion people by 2050. Traditional consumption of non-renewable natural resources co
The world is constantly changing. Our energy demands experience dailyincreasingare increasing daily and global population is expected to increase by another 50% to 9 billion people by 2050. Traditional consumption of non-renewable natural resources continues to rise at an alarming pace, with carbon pollution contributing significantly to global warming. 世界在不斷變化。我們每天增加的能源需求日益增加,預計到2050年,全球人口將再增加50%至90億人。不可再生自然資源的傳統消費繼續以驚人的速度增長,碳污染對全球變暖的影響很大。
Energyphilosophy in London went throughthree stages: There is a step change mantra in London policy which looks at energy philosophy as a sequence of three simple steps: Lean, Clean and Green. • Lean is a question of required consumption – that is, how much energy do we really need to perform the daily duties within our working and living environments. • Clean is a question of how we can use the most energy-efficient equipment to deliver our energy demands. • Finally, Green looks to utilize a renewable energy source in order to provide a large percentage of the energy supply within a given development. aA number of options designed in order to find the most appropriate Lean, Clean and Green solutions.倫敦的Energyphilosophy經歷了三個階段:倫敦政策中有一個改變的口號,將能源哲學視為三個簡單步驟的序列:精益,清潔和綠色。 •精益是一個需要消費的問題 - 也就是說,我們在工作和生活環境中執行日常工作所需的能量是多少。 •清潔問題是我們如何使用最節能的設備來滿足我們的能源需求。 •最后,格林希望利用可再生能源,以便在特定開發項目中提供大部分能源供應。 a為了找到最合適的精益,清潔和綠色解決方案而設計的多種選擇。
The Strata SE1 residential high-rise building in London pushes the boundaries of innovative construction and sustainable design: It is the first major building whichto incorporates wind turbines into its structure. Three five-bladed wind turbines onat the top of the tower are rated at 19 kW each and produce 50 MWh ofelectricity per year, amount toabout 8 percent of the building’s total energy consumption. Ramboll assisted with the wind turbine design, which was selected because of its experience inwith the Bahrain World Trade Center, which mounted uses wind turbines mounted on bridges between the building’s two towers.
The building’’s orientation and concave southernelevation – a direct result of respecting the daylight requirements of the neighboring properties – produced a number of positives. The wind rose offor London has a predominantly south-westerly axis in summer-time and the curved elevation was suitably oriented to capture wind from this direction位于倫敦的Strata SE1住宅高層建筑突破了創新建筑和可持續設計的界限:它是第一座將風力渦輪機納入其結構的主要建筑。塔頂的三個五葉風力發電機每個額定功率為19千瓦,每年產生50兆瓦時的電力,相當于建筑總能耗的8%。 Ramboll協助選擇風力渦輪機設計,因為它在巴林世界貿易中心的經驗被選中,該中心安裝了使用風力渦輪機安裝在建筑物兩座塔樓之間的橋梁上。
The building’s designers originally considered wind turbines, photovoltaic cells, ground-source heat pumps and thermal heating as potential solutions to the mandatoryed on-site renewable energy targets set by the Greater London Authority. They selected wind power because, considering the height and shape of the building, turbines would deliver the greatest energy production. Wind turbines also produce a unique design statement by giving the building a striking profile. The turbines are mounted in venturi-like tubes that serve to capture lower-speed wind speeds and accelerate them to greater velocity to increase power output from the rotating blades. The tubes are fabricated from 6-mm-thick steel plate bolted to the surrounding steel supporting structure, which in turn is attached to the building’s reinforced concrete structural frame. The steel structure was pre-assembled under simulated conditions in a trial run at the steel fabricator’s plant before the actual assembly was carried out 148 feet abovehigh in southeast London. Each turbine is mounted on a 5 tonne (5.5 tons) inertia base, which is also mounted on four anti- vibration dampers to minimize vibration and structure-borne noise.
ANSYS CFX and ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing technology arethe standard tools used at the Ramboll organization. The primary advantage ofin this application was the software is able ’s abilityto efficiently handle large differences in scale. The computational domain extended for several kilometers because the simulation had to incorporate the effects of nearby buildings; at the same time, the mesh needed to resolve fine details in the area of the turbine. When modeling this entire system, ANSYS CFD and meshing tools provided a high level of accuracy while minimizing solution time by varying the density of the mesh in relation to local gradients. A mechanical brake prevents the blades from rotating asat wind speeds and directions that have the potential to damage the turbines. The turbines are connected to a gearbox that converts the relatively slow rotation of the turbine blades into highspeed rotary motion to drive a generator. 
Ramboll engineers used CFD simulation to evaluate the performance of the initial design with different wind directions and speeds. The results identified a large recirculation zone in the entrance to each of the of each wind turbines that reduced velocity of the wind reaching the inlet. The zone also produced a considerable amount of turbulence that generated stresses onthe blade.
Air velocity with air flowings straight into original design. Low-speed areas are shown in blue represent recirculation.
Ramboll engineers used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software from ANSYS to simulate the operation of the wind turbines under various wind conditions based on the original building design. They determined that a large recirculation zone at the mouth of the turbines would greatly limit the amount of energy that could be generated. The design was modified to improve energy output: The turbines were mounted in a more open structure and moved outward toward the edge of the building.
the building architects created a final design with some changes in the curvature of the building. Ramboll engineers modified the CFD model once again and verified that these changes had little impact on the operation of the wind turbines compared withto the previous design.one. CFD analysis determined that the optimum operating range for the turbines is at wind speeds of between 8 meters to 16 meters per second from a southerly direction.
In addition to installing a roof wind generator, the designers have taken other steps to reduce the building's carbon footprint to meet government building codes.For example, the building USES a natural ventilation system that reduces the number of air conditioners.


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