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碩士結課Essay格式范文:What kind of value commitments has a legitimat

時間:2019-08-02 11:07來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
1.0 Introduction介紹 社會科學是以社會現象為研究對象的科學。其任務是研究和闡述各種社會現象及其發展規律(Burawoy,2005年,第4-6頁;Weber,1949年,第50-65頁)。但是,社會發展規律與自然規律
1.0 Introduction介紹
社會科學是以社會現象為研究對象的科學。其任務是研究和闡述各種社會現象及其發展規律(Burawoy,2005年,第4-6頁;Weber,1949年,第50-65頁)。但是,社會發展規律與自然規律有很大的區別。因此,自然科學方法往往被用來研究社會科學,這有很大的不足,而忽視自然科學方法將使自然科學方法和結論不那么客觀(Burawoy,2005年,第4-6頁;Weber,1949年,第50-65頁)。在不影響社會科學客觀性的前提下,研究者在社會科學研究過程中能夠傳達什么樣的價值承諾,一直是困擾社會科學發展的問題之一。韋伯最著名的著作之一闡述了社會科學的研究方法和原理。韋伯分別運用價值相關性、理想類型和價值中立性的概念,從研究對象的選擇、研究方法和研究結果評論等方面說明社會科學是如何客觀的(韋伯,1949年)。韋伯理論為解決社會科學研究的客觀問題提供了一種有價值的方法。本文根據韋伯(1949)的理論分析了特里凡特(2013,第563-580頁)的研究,探討了什么樣的價值承諾在社會科學中具有合法的作用。本文首先介紹了韋伯的價值關聯理論,分析了Triventi(2013,第563-580頁)在研究對象選擇中的價值承諾問題。然后提出了韋伯的理想類型理論,并從研究方法的角度探討了特里凡特(2013,第563-580頁)的價值承諾問題。接著運用韋伯的價值中立理論分析了特里凡特(2013年第563-580頁)在評價結果中的價值承諾問題,最后對韋伯理論的不足之處進行了評述。
Social science refers to science that takes social phenomena as its research object. Its task is to study and elaborate various social phenomena and their development laws (Burawoy, 2005, p.4-6; Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). However, there are great differences between the law of social development and the laws of nature. Therefore, natural science methods are often used to study social science, which has great deficiencies, while ignoring natural science methods will make natural science methods and conclusions less objective (Burawoy, 2005, p.4-6; Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). It is always one of the problems plaguing the development of social science that what kind of value commitments researchers can convey in the process of social science research without affecting the objectivity of social science. One of Weber's most famous works expound the research methods and principles of social science. Weber used the concepts of value relevance, ideal type, and value neutrality respectively to illustrate how social science is objective in terms of the selection of research objects, research methods, and commentary on research results (Weber, 1949).  Weber's theory provides a valuable method for solving the objective problems of social science research. This article analyzed the research of Triventi’s (2013, p. 563-580) according to Weber's (1949) theory, and explored what kind of value commitments have a legitimate role in social science. This article first introduced Weber's value relevance theory, and analyzed the problem of Triventi’s (2013, p. 563-580) value commitments in the selection of research objects. Then it provided Weber's ideal type theory and discussed Triventi’s (2013, p. 563-580) problems of value commitments in terms of research methods. Followed by Weber's value neutrality theory to analyze Triventi’s (2013 p. 563-580) problems of value commitments in the evaluation of results, finally, the author commented the shortcomings of Weber's theory.
 
2.0 Main body主體
2.1 Value relevance and selection of research object價值關聯與研究對象選擇
韋伯(1949,第50-65頁)認為社會科學研究的對象是一種文化現象,社會科學的任務是認識而不是評價社會經濟文化現象。然而,我們面臨的研究課題數量是如此之多。我們如何選擇我們研究的對象?一般來說,選擇自己關注的研究者會受到很多個人因素的影響,包括他的學術背景、研究興趣,甚至他的物質興趣、宗教信仰等(韋伯,1949年,第50-65頁)。正因為如此,不同的研究者會選擇不同的研究對象來關注,這完全取決于他的個人立場和態度,也就是他的價值取向。這就是所謂的價值關系(Weber,1949年,第50-65頁;Hammersley,2016年,第1-11頁)。就研究對象而言,雖然研究者必須根據自己的價值觀在各種具體的社會現象之間進行選擇,但從這個角度來看,建立一個研究對象必然是主觀的。然而,這種選擇是基于研究的意義,而不是基于研究者的主觀喜好和厭惡(標題,2004年,第1639-1643頁;Hammersley,2016年,第1-11頁)。也就是說,研究者可以痛恨毒品和犯罪,或者對宗教信仰漠不關心,但這并不排除研究者會研究這些特定的社會現象,只要他認為這些現象具有重大的研究意義。Weber (1949, p. 50-65) believed that the object of social science research is a cultural phenomenon, and the task of social science is to recognize rather than evaluate social economic and cultural phenomena. However, the number of research subjects we face is so numerous. How do we select the objects we study? Generally speaking, a researcher who chooses his concern will be influenced by many of his personal factors, including not only his academic background, research interest, and even his material interests, religious beliefs, etc. (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). It is precisely because of this that different researchers will choose different research objects to pay attention to, which depends entirely on his personal position and attitude, that is, on his value orientation. This is the so-called value relationship (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65; Hammersley, 2016, p. 1-11). As far as a research subject is concerned, although a researcher must choose between various concrete social phenomena based on his own values, from this perspective, the establishment of a research subject will inevitably be subjective. However, this choice is made based on the significance of the study, it is not based on the subjective likes and dislikes of the researcher (Title, 2004, p. 1639-1643; Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). That is to say, a researcher can hate drugs and crimes, or he is indifferent to religious beliefs, but this does not rule out that the researcher will study these specific social phenomena, as long as he thinks that these phenomena have great research significance. 
As for Triventi’s (2013, p. 563–580) article, why the author chose gender differences between men and women as a research topic, because a large number of studies have shown that there are many harms to the gender differences in wages between men and women, including: violations of the principles of fairness and equality, which do not contribute to the establishment of corporate image, and the establishment of harmonious labor relations, and so on. However, it is not very objective to merely take this as a research aim, as not all gender differences in wages will cause these harms. Wage differences are common in real society. There are many reasons leading to the differences in wages. These differences exist not only between men and women, but also between different countries and regions, and between different companies (Wilton, 2007, p.520-38; Mandel and Semyonov, 2006, p. 1910-49; Halaby, 2003, p. 251-78). In the theory of human resource management, the difference in employee wages caused by performance appraisal finally plays a role in motivating employees, which is even recognized. It is also widely used by enterprises. This shows that the existence of wage differences is a widespread social phenomenon, and in many cases it can be reasonably explained (Wilton, 2007, p. 520-38). The view believing that wage differences between men and women are completely unreasonable may be too subjective. With such a subjective attitude to conduct research will inevitably affect the objectivity of research. From the perspective of value relevance, it is acceptable to study the subject with a certain subjective attitude, but it should be more objective in explaining and studying the research significance of this topic. So why should we study the gender differences between men and women, objective explanations are needed, including not that all wage differences between men and women are unreasonable, and what differences between men and women are reasonable and irrational, to what extent the differences in wages between men and women are inappropriate, what bad outcomes will be caused by unfair wage differences between men and women, and what significance will be brought by research on this unreasonable differences to a society. 
2.2 Ideal types and research methods
When Weber explained how to determine objects of social science research, the next thing is how to achieve this goal. This involves research methods of social science. Weber (1949, p. 50-65) introduced his own concept of "ideal type". In Weber's research methodology, this is a very important concept. Here, Weber showed how to use the concept of "ideal type" to programmatically complete the revealing of causal relationships between specific social phenomena (Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). For example, to study the social phenomenon of "democracy," the first step in Weber's view is to construct an ideal type of "democracy." Some of the most crucial characteristics of democracy, such as free elections, confrontational parties, the legitimate power of the opposition, the decentralization of power, and the protection of civil liberties, are necessary elements of the democratic model of the ideal type. Using this as a frame of reference, it is found that communist or socialist democracy has a considerable distance from this. In contrast, the Western democratic political system is closer to the ideal democratic model. On this basis, it can be concluded that Western democracy is more democratic than socialist democracy (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65).


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