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碩士結課Essay格式范文:What kind of value commitments has a legitimat(2)

時間:2019-08-02 11:07來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
Webers concept of ideal type does provide a method with a certain degree of operability in the study of specific social phenomena, which is of great help in the research on reality (Hammersley, 2016,
Weber's concept of ideal type does provide a method with a certain degree of operability in the study of specific social phenomena, which is of great help in the research on reality (Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). However, as far as Weber's concept of the ideal type is concerned, I understand that he should be an abstraction of the actual activities. Weber himself once pointed out that an ideal type is formed by one-sided emphasis on one or more viewpoints, through synthesizing many diffuse, unconnected, individual specific phenomena that are more or less present and occasionally absent, these phenomena are grouped into a unified analysis structure based on those views that are emphatically emphasized (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). As far as ideal type is concerned, although different researchers can extract their own ideal type, from this perspective, ideal type do have a subjective aspect. However, it should be noted that ideal type is only a kind of analysis structure, and although the ideal type is Utopia, it has a living entity, rather than a subjectively imagined object by a researcher with his own likes and dislikes (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65; Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11).
According to Weber's ideal type analysis method to study gender differences in wages between men and women can follow the following steps. First of all, it is necessary to define what kind of status the wage difference between men and women should be under ideal conditions, should men's and women's wages be the same or allow a certain degree of difference. Second, what is the ideal distribution of men and women in the workplace in the labor market? Should men and women be evenly distributed in different industries or evenly distributed at different levels in a same industry, or should they allow men and women to distribute differently in different industries and at different levels according to their own characteristics. Finally, to analyze the reasons for gender differences between men and women, if we analyze from the perspective of family roles and socio-cultural perspectives, then we need to analyze the ideal state of life and social status of women under ideal social and family conditions, and what roles men and women should play in an ideal social status. 
According to the above logic, we analyzed Hammersley’s (2016, p.1-11) article. First of all, the study was based on whether there is statistical difference between men and women's wages to determine whether they are equal. This is a concept of pursuing the absolute equality of men’s and women’s wages, so whether the absolute equality of wages of men and women is an ideal state, objectively speaking, wages are affected by many factors including work efficiency, potential, welfare system, and many other factors (Mandel and Semyonov, 2006, p. 1910-49; England, 2005, p.264-88). There are many differences between men and women in abilities, strengths, physical strength, intelligence, and personality (England, 2005, p.264-88; Halaby, 2003, p. 251-78), ignoring these differences and pursuing absolute equality in wages is not an objective attitude. Therefore, in the study of gender differences in wages, we must determine whether there should be differences in gender wages in an ideal state, if there is a difference, to what extent this difference is the best.
Second, Hammersley’s (2016, p.7) article used vertical isolation and horizontal isolation to show women's disadvantaged position in the workplace, thereby illustrating the reason for why women's wages are lower than men's. The author still used a method of statistical data to show that there are significantly more men in senior positions or in high-yield industries than women to illustrate the disadvantages of women in the workplace. This is also opinion of pursuit of absolute equality between men and women in the workplace in different industries and levels. This is also not an objective point of view, because in reality, there is a big difference between men and women in terms of their own characteristics, positions and industry characteristics, market competition environment (England, 2005, p.264-88; Fagan, 2001, p. 239-66), the pursuit of the absolute equality of men and women in the workplace distribution must be incompatible with objective facts. Therefore, it is necessary to determine whether there should be differences in the distribution of men and women in different occupations and levels in the workplace under ideal conditions. If there is a difference, to what extent this difference is the best.
Finally, Hammersley (2016, p.7) analyzed why women are at a disadvantaged position and get lower wages than men's in the workplace in terms of family roles and even socio-cultural and historical traditions. For example, women assume more housework, they cannot devote more energy to work, and take more risk to resign halfway (Halaby, 2003, p. 251-78; England, 2005, p.264-88). These are facts, but these are unilateral analysis of the role and positioning of women in family and social culture. They are not objective and comprehensive. For example, women who focus on family affairs may lead to a decrease in personal income, but it will allow the men to devote more energy to work to earn more wages. From the perspective of overall household income, the families may get more, and women may be more willing to bear this. In this case, women's family roles cannot be used as a reason to analyze the unreasonable differences between men's and women's wages. According to Weber's theory to analyze the causes of women's low wages from the point of view of family culture, an ideal model for family relations should be constructed to understand the status of men and women, their roles, and family responsibilities under ideal family relationships. In this sense, the factors affecting women’s low wages are not only related to women’s family roles, but also to the men’s ability to assume their own family roles. The analysis and resolution of women’s low wages from the perspective of women’s family roles may not be objective and comprehensive.
2.3 Value neutrality and evaluation of research results
Value neutrality is a methodological principle with objectivism that appears in social science research. It requires social scientists to merely state the facts while observing, exploring, and interpreting social phenomena, and abandon value judgments and individuals’ likes, dislikes to adopt an “unbiased” attitude, thus in social science research, there is only true and false, but it has nothing to do with right or wrong (Hollis, 1994, p.222-223; Becker, 1967, p.239-247). Weber figured, value neutrality has two meanings: First, once a social scientist chooses a research topic based on his own values, he must stop using any subjective values and obey the guidelines of the data he finds, regardless of whether the results of application of this kind of data research are beneficial to him. This requires researchers to observe and analyze strictly in an objective and neutral manner, so as to guarantee the objectivity and scientificalness of research (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). Second, strict distinctions must be made between factual judgments and value judgments. As a social science researcher, he can only describe or explain scientific facts to people, and cannot teach people to make value choices (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65). In Weber’s view, an empirical science does not teach people what to do, but only tells people what they can do, or what they want to do in a specific situation, the question “should be” is an issue that cannot be solved by experience science, because value judgments are plural, ultimate value does not have a common objective standard (Weber, 1949, p. 50-65; Hammersley, 2009, p.1-11). In other words, social science as an empirical science can only explain social phenomena and does not make value judgments on social phenomena, and making value judgments is not the scope of social science. A research object can only be recognized, and it cannot be processed, and can not be evaluated. Once it is researched and interpreted, it will have a value relationship. That is, a social phenomenon is different from the individual value of researchers, and each researcher will have different interpretation of this social phenomenon. In other words, the social phenomenon explained by the researchers is not a social phenomenon of the “real” world, but a social phenomenon after processing (Hollis, 1994, p.222-223).
According to Weber’s principle of value neutrality, when doing social science research, researchers can describe objective facts, but they need to avoid interpreting these objective facts in a subjective manner. In Triventi’s (2013, p.563-580) article, it is pointed out that one of the reasons for the gender differences between male and female wages comes from the pure discrimination against women. Whether it is deemed as pure discrimination requires more evidence to support, otherwise it is difficult to avoid being considered as a conclusion that is incorporated with the subjective consciousness of the researcher. The author believed that female discrimination is one of the causes of gender differences in wages, which involves value judgments and violates the principle of value neutrality. If this part of the research is to be perfected on the basis of value-neutral principles, it should first list relevant data and facts. Then, based on objective research attitudes and methods to find out the performance and causes of wage differences, and state what the specifics of these manifestations and causes. The author should not directly judge whether discrimination is the cause of wage differences, but allow readers to judge according to the stated data and objective facts whether the wage difference between men and women is discriminatory.
2.4 Critical analysis on Weber's theory
Weber's theory emphasizes the difference between natural science and social science, and points out the subjective features of social science. On the other hand, he tried to find an objective foundation for sociological research and seek a balance between the subjectivity and objectivity in social science research (Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). His theory and principles have become a valuable method for contemporary social science research (Hammersley, 2016, p.1-11). However, there are some inherent conflicts and contradictions in his theory. For example, he believed that social science research does not have to find the universal objective laws that exist, but when people shape ideal types, they inevitably seek out objective laws and build ideal types based on these rules. In addition, value relevance theory allows people to have subjective ideas when selecting research objects, but requires subjective ideas to be consistent with objective facts. Then how to judge whether the two are consistent and how to achieve compliance has brought some trouble for people to use his theory in social science research.


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