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創業與創新之間的關系

時間:2015-12-18 12:06來源:www.2279035.live 作者:留學生作業 點擊:
本文是留學生MBA essay范文,主要內容講述了創業與創新之間的關系,并且提出創新對于創業活動具有何種影響。

創業與創新之間的關系
The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship And Innovation 

創業與創新之間的關系是什么?這取決于你在創業中看中的模型,它與創新的關系不同。有定義提出,使創業行為幾乎相同的創新。創新比創業有更多其他方面的信息嗎?創業可以從創新中定義出來嗎?這里有些問題,我想從這篇文章中得出結論并回答,我將檢查和確定這兩者之間的關系,關系是或大或小的。3個新興企業中排第一的企業在前三年的創業中失敗了,2001年,每3分鐘,有很多潛在的、充滿希望的企業家渴望成功的業務,但是失敗了。這之間的差異特征,成功和失敗,有明確的分化和可以使用大量的創新業務的成功企業家而奏效的呢?我旨在得出結論和回答所有這些問題和批判性分析不同理論。

這兩個術語經??梢曰Q,很少理解兩者之間的區別。關于創新,我的解釋是,在一個產品或一個過程中,它有很多的發明,是一個標準的變化,然后成為常態。一個很好的例子,展示創新的運動從軟盤光盤到只讀存儲器,這是一個明確的行動與設計完全不同,然后成為常態,直到發生了進一步的創新和USB閃存驅動器已成為最常見的文件存儲和傳輸。定義企業家精神的問題和創新聯系起來,相比聽起來要難。

What is the relationship between entrepreneurship and innovation? Depending on which model you are looking at entrepreneurship has a differing relationship with innovation. There are definitions out there that make an entrepreneurial behaviour almost identical to that of innovation. Is there more to innovation than being entrepreneurial? Can entrepreneurship be defined by innovation? These are some questions I intend to answer throughout the essay and I will examine and determine how the two are related, however large or small the relationship is. Up to 1 in 3 business start-ups fail within the first three years and with the amount of start ups, 3 per minute in 2001, there is a lot of prospective, hopeful entrepreneurs aiming to succeed in business but fail. What is the difference in characteristics between those that succeed and fail, is there a clear differentiation and can the amount of innovation used by the entrepreneur effect the success of the business? I aim to come to a conclusion and answer all of these questions throughout and critically analyse differing theories.

Both of the terms are often used interchangeably with little understanding of the differentiation between the two (David Johnson, 2001). My interpretation of innovation is that it has a lot to do with the invention of a product or a process and is a change in the norm, which then becomes the norm. A good example which would show innovation would be the movement from the floppy disk to the CD ROM, this is a clear move with a totally different design and then became the norm, till further innovation happened and the USB flash drive has become the most common for file storing and transfer. The question of defining entrepreneurship and linking it to innovation is harder than it sounds. There are many studies of entrepreneurship however there is no specific definition as it cannot be summed up into one single statement. There are various models showing a differing correlation between innovation and entrepreneurship. I see the link between the two as one in which, if worked together in harmony there can be a prefect outcome in terms of the success of an entrepreneur. Not everyone who starts up a business is an entrepreneur; it is the one who makes the best outcome of any opportunity given throughout the life of a business that will be a successful entrepreneur. There are different characteristics and different circumstances surrounding each successful entrepreneur's story but each made it down their route to become successful.

'A good idea is nothing more than a tool in the hands of an entrepreneur.'(Jeffry Timmons 1977) This idea shows that innovation, or the idea is just one single aspect of the processes of the entrepreneur in the making of, and continuing the success of a business. Therefore this means there is a relationship visible but it cannot be said it is one that says that entrepreneurship is more than just an idea, or innovation but it is using that idea.

'Innovations are the composite of two worlds, namely, the technical, and the business; so when only a change in technology is involved, this is just an invention; but as soon as the business world is involved, it becomes an Innovation.' (Schumpeter 1934). 'An entrepreneur is an individual who establishes and manages a business for the principle purposes of profit and growth. The entrepreneur is characterised principally by innovative behaviour and will employ strategic management practices in the business this explanation is very relevant to what I am trying to explain and the link with business shows how entrepreneurs in business can be innovative.' (Carland et al, 1984). These are how innovation and entrepreneurship can be defined in 2 different models. They can both be linked into each other visibly due to the idea of business in innovation and the innovative behaviour. However they can also be criticised due to saying entrepreneurs are only in pursuit of profit but this would depend on the personality of the individual. The founder of Oxfam, Joe Mitty, was solely interested in making money for charity and was a volunteer.

Schumpeter's view of 'creative destruction' (1934) refers to the entrepreneur introducing a new idea that takes over a market and links entrepreneurs to economic growth and development. This could be an idea of shifting production processes, reducing the size of the workforce to increase productivity or indeed the introduction of a new product. The reason the introduction of the new idea has such an effect is, because of the unpredictability of the introduction, meaning there is no chance to prepare and lessen the impact of the new idea. Therefore Schumpeter's theory was very much in line and the link innovation has with the entrepreneur is clear and represented by the fact that this creative destruction often leads to the overhaul of a market and takes over the old idea. For example the DVD, taking over VHS, and now they do not sell VHS in HMV and most other leading electronic multi media stores.

The view of Kirzner (1973) is that entrepreneurs are individuals that recognise opportunity and find gaps in the market and test the viability of new business by trial and error and feedback from the market. Therefore these two views are contrasting with Kirzner's view of entrepreneurship related more markets and gaps within them, and the responsiveness of an individual to react and make the most of this opportunity, rather than seeing the opportunity for a new product or idea, rather than simply moulding or adapting what is there already to gain market share. After this an entrepreneur differentiates from just an opportunist introduction and realisation of the idea by carrying on the idea and turning it into a viable business.

These two ideas give a different level of linkage with innovation, rather than the destruction of Schumpeter's model which creates the market for the product, Kirzner believes it is about adapting the idea to fit into the market, so the innovation may be seen as more lapse and less extreme in Kirzner's case.

OECD (1998) states that: '(they) accelerate the generation, dissemination and application of innovative ideas' this sums up one particular idea of the relationship between the two; it implies that entrepreneurship is innovative however, innovation is not always entrepreneurial. Innovation may only be one aspect in the beginning, or perhaps innovation should happen throughout and be continued through the life of the business to attempt to keep ahead of competition. Innovation is not always a radical destruction of a current process or product and it can just be a small alteration to current product or process. E.G. Sir Stelios Haji-Ioannou, an entrepreneur and the founder of easy jet, took an idea and used his business mind and talents to create and exploit the market, however did not invent any new innovative product, or production process but he spotted an opportunity for a budget airline which opened air travel up to the masses, whom perhaps could not afford what was there before it.

Schere (1982) sums up an entrepreneur by giving their characteristics, it states they have a tolerance for stress and uncertainty, a real life example here can be the entrepreneur I interviewed, John Russell, who had to support a family at the same time as remortgaging his house and set up a business. To get through the stress of this whilst setting up and pursuing a successful business would take a lot of tolerance and self belief. The tolerance of uncertainty could be linked to innovation, if it is a new process or product and it has not been tried and tested in a market as is discussed by Kirzner (1973), the entrepreneur is taking a big risk even if the gap in the market it there in theory, there is no certainty due to the irrational behaviour of consumers. Schere gives a characteristic of entrepreneurs that they are open minded and can react quickly to change. The nature of innovation is that however prepared or quickly entrepreneurs can react they are often powerless to prevent a total overhaul of a market, due to the action of another entrepreneur (Schumpeter 1934).

Timmons et al (1985) gives one of the largest sets of traits in the field. The trait of having the drive to achieve and grow is one of them. The drive to grow is one trait of interest and can be linked in to what has already been discussed, due to the distinction between innovation and entrepreneurship, with innovation being the starting point of a process and the entrepreneurial side leading to the growth of the business, however innovation would be needed throughout the life of the business to lead to a growth in the idea, an example is Simon Cowell who from X factor went on to expand using entrepreneurial prowess to take it into other countries and then went on and created Britain's got talent, which introduced a new idea and process to the TV industry. Simon Cowell, just one example can already counter the idea of Timmons et al, of they have Low need for status and power, as it is visible that this interests him.



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