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educatinmal counselling教育咨詢:實踐建議指南guidelines for practicam p

時間:2019-09-03 11:23來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
本提案規定了學習合同,包括實踐的目標和目標。在實際研究中突出了四個關鍵概念。第一,回顧學校與家長合作的意義;第二,討論殘疾兒童的需求;第三,評估兒童的期望;最后,討論家長
本提案規定了學習合同,包括實踐的目標和目標。在實際研究中突出了四個關鍵概念。第一,回顧學校與家長合作的意義;第二,討論殘疾兒童的需求;第三,評估兒童的期望;最后,討論家長與學校的期望。這些概念的討論基于良好的咨詢理論和原則,以提高服務質量或在實踐場所或評估計劃中啟動新的服務。
This proposal specifies the learning contract including the goals and objectives of the practicum. Four key concepts are highlighted for the actual study. First, reviewing the significance of cooperation between school and parents, second, discussing disabled children’s needs, third, evaluation of the expectations of kids and lastly discussing the parents and schools expectations. The discussion of these concepts is based on the good counseling theories and principles to enhance the quality of services or initiating new services in the practicum sites or the evaluation plans.
學校與家長之間的合作是發展和實施支持性教育過程的關鍵途徑之一。學習過程涉及兩種不同環境中的互動:學校環境和工作環境(Kyle,Dearing和Zachrisson,2018)。教師每天都要參與學校環境,面對不同性質的現實和挑戰。有些挑戰需要立即解決,而另一些則需要長期解決,有時需要系統性的改變。“與學校交朋友”的概念著重于在家長、教師和學生之間建立一種和平的聯系。據認為,學校與家長之間的緊密合作,提供了一些關于為什么值得做以及如何組織這一過程的提示(Johnsen、Bele和Irene,2013年)。在這種情況下,有效的合作是建立在家長與班主任緊密合作的基礎上的,這種合作可以產生積極的效果。
Cooperation between the school and parents is one of the key ways to develop and implement a supportive education process. The learning process involves the interactions in two different environments; the school environment and the workplace environment(Kyle, Dearing and Zachrisson, 2018). The teachers are always involved in the school environment on a daily basis facing realities and challenges of different nature. Some of the challenges would need immediate solutions while others demand long-term solutions which sometimes demand systemic changes. The concept of "make friends with school" focuses on establishing a peaceful link between the parents, teachers, and students. It is deemed that tight cooperation between the school and parents provides some hints on why it is worth doing and how the process can be organized(Johnsen, Bele, and Irene, 2013). In this case, effective cooperation is one that is based on tight cooperation between parents and class teachers, and the cooperation can bring forth positive results.
確保教師和家長之間有效合作以支持學習過程的各種關鍵目標(Saavala、Turjanma和Alitolpa Niitamo,2017年)。其中一些目標包括:確保家長參與到孩子的學習過程中,統一學校和家庭環境的教育影響,促進合作,承認學生的發展能力,提高家長的教育意識。它傳遞孩子在學校的進步知識,建立家長對學校期望的信息,并在學校和家長之間建立積極的工作伙伴關系。
There are various critical objectives of ensuring effective cooperation between the teachers and parents to support the learning process(Saavala, Turjanmaa, and Alitolppa-Niitamo, 2017). Some of the objectives include: ensuring parents participate in the learning process of their kids, it unifies the educational influence of schools and home environment, it fosters cooperation in recognition of the development abilities of students, it enhances the educational awareness of parents, it passes knowledge on the progress of the child at school, it establishes information on the expectations of the parents concerning their school and it creates a positive working partnership between the school and the parents. 
Disabled children face various kinds of complex challenges compared to their other colleagues, and they thus need special attention to facilitate their activities to ensure they also achieve their desire for an ordinary and reasonable quality life(Evans and Plumridge, 2007). The services play a critical role in meeting some of the needs of the disabled kids and their families and in ensuring that these kids are not excluded from the opportunities that many other disabled children and their families sometimes take for granted. However, there are a lot of challenges towards ensuring equal opportunities for both the non-disabled and the disabled kids since the limited nature of the variable services and the social attitude continue to exclude the disabled children from various kinds of critical opportunities and thus constraining the lives of their families(Osborne, 2011).
There are various kinds of objectives associated with efforts advocating for the achievement of the needs of the disabled kids. First, there is a need to generate information that provides a complete picture of the nature of circumstances of disabled kids(Lukemeyer, Meyers and Smeeding, 2000). Second, there is need to increase the number of children in this category that receive the family support services like domiciliary services, short-term breaks and number of hours of services to ensure the kids and their families lead an ordinary life. Third, increase the number of disabled kids using whole play and leisure services like the holiday play schemes, pre-school provisions, and afterschool clubs includes appropriate support where necessary(Evans and Plumridge, 2007). Fourth, it is essential to ensure that the parents of the disabled kids get the necessary information about services from the statutory and voluntary sector at an inter-agency level.
Understanding the kid’s expectations and supporting them towards achieving the good expectations is one of the key ways towards helping kids achieve their full potential(Ruppar, Gaffney and Dymond, 2015). When the parents and the teachers believe in a kid or a student, it generates a culture both at home and in the school environment which influences the expectations of the kids. However, it is also critical to create a difference between aspirations and expectations. Aspirations are about wanting to be better while the expectations convey a belief concerning the likelihood of success(VanTassel-Baska, 2013). Students with high aspirations and lower expectations are twice as likely to score poorly than those with both high aspirations and high expectations(Marquardt & Kearsley, 1999). The way that kids think about themselves has a critical impact on the way that they behave(Gansen, 2018). Students who consider themselves in a positive light, it is helpful to create a culture of a growth mindset. Students can improve by working hard and learning from their mistakes. Better expectations can be fostered among kids by encouraging them to reflect more on their processes, focusing less on their natural abilities and developing their self-talk.
There is a need to have the right expectations to achieve successful parent-teacher relationships(Diamond, Randolph, and Spillane, 2004). The parent-teacher relationship has a critical influence on various aspects of the success of the students and sometimes the relationship between the teacher and the students. Some of the key activities that foster better expectations from the parents and the schools are practicing open communication to ensure that the teachers and the parents stay connected. Both the teachers and parents need to provide a welcoming space for learning. They both, teachers and parents need to ensure the kids are comfortable in their academic environment; for instance, kids should consider schools “home away from home”(Gansen, 2018). Parents also need to show commitment to the school, classroom, and children and ask for assistance to understand their kids.
In conclusion, it is evident that the four issues, cooperation between school and parents, disabled children’s needs, expectations of kids and parents and schools expectations are critical concepts for the development of the practicum. Successful research and planning based on these four concepts would go a long way towards improving the learning process of kids since it mainly depends on the culture in which the kids are raised which is based on the home and school environment, the resulting expectations that the kids develop for themselves and the availability of the necessary support from the parents and the teachers in improving and achieving the expectations of the kids.

REFERENCES
Diamond, J., Randolph, A., & Spillane, J. (2004). Teachers' Expectations and Sense of Responsibility for Student Learning: The Importance of Race, Class, and Organizational Habitus. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 35(1), 75-98.
Evans, R., & Plumridge, G. (2007). Inclusion, Social Networks, and Resilience: Strategies, Practices, and Outcomes for Disabled Children and their Families. Social Policy and Society, 6(2), 231-241.
Gansen, H. M. (2018). Push-Ups Versus Clean-Up: Preschool Teachers’ Gendered Beliefs, Expectations for Behavior, and Disciplinary Practices. Sex Roles, 1-16.
Gillan, M., & Gillan, J. (1999). Growing up ethnic in America: contemporary fiction about learning to be American.
Johnsen, A., Bele, A., & Irene, V. (2013). Parents of students who struggle in school: are they satisfied with their children's education and their involvement? Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 15(2), 89.
Kyle, D., Dearing, E., & Zachrisson, H. (2018). Is Parent–Teacher Cooperation in the First Year of School Associated with Children’s Academic Skills and Behavioral Functioning? International Journal of Early Childhood, 50(2), 211-226.


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