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浪漫主義時期鋼琴作品演奏的特征-英國作業

時間:2019-09-11 08:59來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
1.0 Introduction介紹 19世紀初,它在歐洲文藝界形成了一種新的潮流風格,音樂中的浪漫因素逐漸占據主導地位(Ying,Evens,Hashim and Chiat,2015)。在音樂史上,100多年后,這是一個浪漫的時期。
1.0 Introduction介紹
19世紀初,它在歐洲文藝界形成了一種新的潮流風格,音樂中的浪漫因素逐漸占據主導地位(Ying,Evens,Hashim and Chiat,2015)。在音樂史上,100多年后,這是一個浪漫的時期。19世紀是和諧極度發展的世紀(Kupana和Otacioglu,2012)。這是音樂大師層出不窮的世紀,也是鋼琴音樂發展到巔峰的世紀。這一時期誕生了許多著名的鋼琴家和鋼琴作品。這些鋼琴作品不僅給觀眾帶來了每秒的享受,而且在鋼琴演奏技巧上也有許多獨創性的創作,對后世的鋼琴演奏產生了深遠的影響(Maslen,2013)。本文旨在了解浪漫主義時期鋼琴作品的演奏技巧及其影響。本文首先回顧了浪漫主義時期鋼琴作品的特點,然后介紹了浪漫主義時期鋼琴演奏技術的特點。最后,探討浪漫主義時期鋼琴演奏技巧對后世鋼琴演奏技巧發展的影響。
In the early 19th century, it formed a new trend style in European literature and art generally, the romantic factors in music gradually occupied a dominant position (Ying, Evens, Hashim and Chiat, 2015). In the history of music, more than 100 years later, it was a romantic period. The 19th century was a century of extreme development of harmony (Kupana and Otacioglu, 2012). It is the century where music masters emerge in an endless stream, and the century when piano music developed to its peak. In this period, many famous pianists and piano works have been born. These piano works not only brought enjoyment to the audience every second, but also have many original creations in the piano playing skills, which has a profound impact on piano performances of later generations (Maslen, 2013). The aim of this paper is to understand the playing skills and influence of piano works in the Romantic period. This article first reviews the characteristics of piano works during the Romantic period, and then introduces the characteristics of piano performance techniques of this period. Finally, it discusses the influence of piano performance techniques in the romantic period on the development of piano performance skills of the later generations.
2.0 Main body主體
2.1 Characteristics of piano works during the romantic period浪漫主義時期鋼琴作品的特點
2.1.1 Reflection of nationalism民族主義的反思
19世紀是民族主義的世紀。隨著民族解放運動的發展和音樂色彩的增加,音樂家們比以往更加關注民族情感(賴、吳、柔、徐、郭,2015)。民族精神是許多浪漫主義作曲家的愛國主義精神和民主精神(Lai等人,2015)。革命精神的集中體現,也是他們熱愛生活、歌頌美好未來的理想追求。特別是在東歐和北歐國家,音樂家們收集并出版民歌,精選民族歷史傳說、自然風光、人民生活等題材,運用大量民歌的旋律和節奏,形成了具有民族特色的音樂語言。ICS為19世紀的音樂增添了新的色彩,成為浪漫主義音樂的重要力量(Spector,Yong,Altenmüller and Jabusch,2014)。
The 19th century was a century of nationalism. With the development of the national liberation movement and the increasing color of music, musicians paid more attention to national sentiment than ever before (Lai, Wu, Jou, Hsu and Kuo, 2015). The national spirit was the patriotic spirit and democratic spirit of many romantic composers (Lai et al., 2015). The concentrated expression of the revolutionary spirit was also the ideal pursuit of their love of life and their eulogizing for a better future. Especially in Eastern Europe and the Nordic countries, musicians collected and published folk songs, selected ethnic historical legends, natural scenery, people's lives and other subjects, and used a large number of tune and rhythm of folk songs to form a musical language with national characteristics to add new color for the music in the 19th century and became an important force in romantic music (Spector, Yong, Altenmüller and Jabusch, 2014).
2.1.2 Full of imagination
The musicians of this period contacted the real life and used their fantasy themes and images to reflect their ideals and wishes (Akbulut, 2010). They searched for materials from folklore and mythological epics, by fictionalizing and beautifying their content, as well as rendering religious mysticism to add a lot of fantasy factors to music works.
2.1.3 Strong expression of subjective personal thoughts and emotions
Arts of romanticism focuses on feelings, and rationality belonged to the secondary position. The various phenomena of the whole world and real life were expressed through personal subjective feelings, reflecting the thoughts and feelings of the bourgeoisie and their worldview in this new historical period (Chmurzynska, 2012). Therefore, lyricism, autobiographical and personal psychological portrayal became one of the main features of romantic music. It reflected purely subjective personal feelings and also has a certain social typicality.
2.2 Characteristics of piano playing skills
2.2.1. Speed change
In piano music, a very important factor in the specific expression of romantic style is speed. The speed range of music in different eras is different. For example, the speed range of the Baroque music is not wide, and the speed range of romantic music is much larger than that of the Baroque period. The difference in the speed range of music during this period is exaggerated, from as fast as 200 beats per minute to as slow as 42 beats per minute. For example, some of Chopin's "Mazurek" collections are marked with speed markers, with the fastest speed marker: 189 beats per minute; the slowest is 80 beats per minute. These different "Mazurek" appear at different speeds, indicating how much the speed range of this period has changed. Why did such a large speed change occur during this period? This is because the piano technology of the Romantic period developed to its peak. First, a group of master pianists who showed off their superb performance skills appeared. Second, through the unremitting efforts of composers such as Liszt, Chopin, Schumann and Brahms, the artistic expression of the piano was thoroughly revealed. Various technical means have been expanded, and a large number of super-technologies have emerged. From the difficulty point of view, the test of human functions in this period has reached its peak. In order to focus on the new performance techniques of this period, the concert-style "Etude" replaced the purely technical Etudes, and a number of Etudes that can be played at the concert for the purpose of special techniques of supertechnology were written, which promoted the development of the piano playing technology itself. The best reflection of the development of piano performance in the 19th century is Liszt's "Super Skill Etude", "Six Paganini Etudes" and Chopin's 24 Etudes (Works 10 and 25).
2.2.2 Power of playing
The characteristics of romantic music works are the large-scale transformation and contrast (Emond and Comeau, 2013). A large number of two-tone, chord, octave require common use of texture with more power, the change of technology type, which has led to great changes in the force parts. According to relevant records: Liszt, Chopin’s method of teaching at that time very scientifically used the strength of fingers, wrists, elbows, arms, waist and even the whole body (Parsons et al., 2005; Hou et al., 2017). This is the way of playing by combining weight and fingers (Emond and Comeau, 2013). There has been a big change in strength. Pianists do everything they can to make the piano lighter, louder, darker, brighter, more connected, sharper, thicker, thinner, and more varied in tone, extending the intensity change from pppp to ffff, the various parts of the body are unified into a whole, instead of just using one of the parts to play, so that the strength of the piano performance has been richly changed. For example, in the works of 44 of Tchaikovsky's the 2 Piano Concertos, there is very strong and very weak, in the 331 subsection of the second movement, it appears extremely weak, in the 330 subsection, it appears four weak marks (pppp).
 
2.2.3 Rubato
The most complicated, serious, and difficult to deal with romantic works is probably flexible beats. Conceptually, the modern meaning of flexible beats is not limited by the speed or rhythm of a rigid phrase in a phrase, and the freedom to telescopically slow or speed up the melody (Maslen, 2013). Rubato are the playing styles of musical works in the Romantic period, which are entirely determined by the sense of music and are determined by the actual situation of music development (Akbulut, 2010; Chmurzynska, 2012). Playing flexible beats must master the style of works, understand the connotation of works, have a good sense of music and rich knowledge accumulation, only listening more, thinking more, carefully observing, developing a good sense of music and gaining a sensitive understanding, can a person handle flexible beats properly.
2.2.4 Musical form
The music of the romantic music era focused on subjective performance, so the composers paid more attention to the content of songs, and paid less attention to the problem of musical form (Spector et al., 2014). In the period of classicalism, the sonatas and concerto styles were gradually abandoned by the composers, and the “small character” of the single movements with weaker logicization formed an important music category of romantic piano music (Akbulut, 2010; Chmurzynska, 2012; Lai et al., 2015). For example, the lyrical melody and the original harmony of Schubert's Sonata, especially his "waltz", etc., the themes were mostly dreams, fantasy and enthusiasm. In terms of sonata, since Beethoven, it was not very attractive to composers, the classical sonata was generally abandoned, and tended to a single movement. Dance music played an important role in the romantic music era, such as “Mazurka”, “Polish Dance” and “Waltz” and “Polk” (Ying et al., 2015). In addition, variations also lost the depth that it expressed during the classical period in the romantic piano music.


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